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Knowledge about Printing

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What’s on the printing paper? For example, what kinds of paper are commonly used? What paper does the album use? What kind of paper does an ordinary flyer use? And other related knowledge!

if paper is commonly used, it is basically coated paper and matte paper. Some picture books with high requirements will also use special paper. The printing industry is called special paper. Ordinary leaflets are also basically coated paper and matte paper

book paper is generally used to print leaflets in books with only black text

there are more than 20 kinds of printing paper, but more than 10 kinds are commonly used. They are:

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1 Newsprint is used for newspaper printing, also known as white newspaper. Quantitative 51 grams square meters. Foreign newsprint has the trend of low quantitative development, and domestic newsprint also has 49G square meters and 45g square meters. According to the quality standard, it is divided into four grades: A, B, C and D. among them, Grade A and B are suitable for high-speed lithography rotary printing. Newsprint is web paper with specifications of 781mm, 787mm, 1575mm and 1562mm. Newsprint takes mechanical wood pulp as the main raw material, mixed with a small amount of chemical wood pulp, and is mostly produced by long net machine. In order to adapt to the development trend of flat printing, the production process of newsprint has been reformed since the 1980s, and some rosin sizing materials have been added appropriately to improve the printing suitability of the paper. This is flat printing newsprint. China’s eight major newsprint mills are distributed in the South and north respectively. Due to the different wood used in the South and North paper mills, the performance of paper also has its own length. Most northern paper mills use poplar, red and white pine as wood pulp. The paper is white and delicate, with good smoothness, but the tensile strength is poor; Southern paper mills mostly use masson pine as wood pulp. The whiteness of the paper is poor, the texture is rough, and the smoothness is also poor, but the tensile strength and surface strength are better. Newsprint will turn yellow and brittle with the increase of storage time, so it is not suitable for printing books

2. Relief printing paper relief printing paper, referred to as relief paper for short, is a new variety of paper suitable for relief printing books and periodicals, which was organized by the Ministry of light industry in the early 1950s according to China’s national conditions of poor wood resources and rich grass resources. Quantitative 52 g m2, 60 g m2 and 70 g m2. There are web paper and flat paper. The width of web paper is 787 mm, 880 mm and 850 mm; The size of flat sheet paper is 787 × 1092 (mm), 850 × 1168 (mm) and 880 × 1230 (mm). Relief paper is divided into three grades: A, B and C. There are many grass resources that can be used to make letterpress paper, including reed, wheat straw, straw, bamboo, Ganshu residue, etc., among which reed pulp is the best. Taking into account the need of book readers not to bleed water when commenting on the book, but also to make the paper conducive to the penetration of ink in the printing process, add an appropriate amount of glue and filler in the beating process, and copy it on the long screen machine with about 80% straw pulp and about 20% wood pulp. It can also be produced by the round screen machine

3. The printing technology of books and periodicals is based on the flat printing paper, which is adapted to the needs of the new printing paper after the 1980s. There are 52 grams of square meters, 60 grams of square meters and 70 grams of square meters, mainly web paper, and the size specification is basically the same as that of letterpress paper. Lithographic books and periodicals paper is made by mixing about 80% reed pulp with about 20% chemical wood pulp, beating and then adding paraffin, rosin gum and filler on the long screen machine. In order to improve the surface strength and water resistance of the paper, some have to carry out surface sizing on the paper in the middle of the paper machine. Therefore, the physical properties of lithographic books and periodicals paper, such as tensile strength, surface smoothness, dust and water resistance, are slightly higher than those of letterpress paper. The manufacturers of lithographic books and periodicals are still the eight major paper mills that originally produced letterpress paper

4. Lithographic printing paper lithographic printing paper, also known as double offset paper, referred to as lithographic paper, is a kind of paper widely used in lithographic printing, including web paper and flat paper, with specifications of 787, 850 and 880 mm. There are various specifications of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150 and 180g square meters. Quantitative 120, 150, 180 gram square meters, etc. are mostly used for book inserts, ring linings, title pages, etc; 60 ~ 80g square meters are mostly used for pictorial, book text or color inserts. Lithographic paper is divided into three grades: A, B and C. grades A and B are used for advanced color printing, and grade C is used for general color printing. There is also a single-sided lithographic paper, which is mainly used for printing new year pictures and posters. The quantitative quantity is 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 grams square meters. It is packed in flat sheet with the specification of 787 × 1092 (mm), 880 × 1230 (mm). It is divided into three levels: A, B and C. Lithographic paper is made of bleached chemical wood pulp, cotton pulp, bamboo pulp and Longxu straw pulp by super calendering after surface sizing. Before the 1950s, lithographic paper was mainly imported. At that time, Daolin foreign firm in Hong Kong distributed this kind of paper, so it was called “Daolin paper”. China has Kaishantun, Shixian, Hanyang, Chongqing, Shandong General Factory, Shanghai Lihua, Baoding and other factories that produce lithographic paper

5. Dictionary paper dictionary paper is a kind of high-grade paper for book printing with low quantity. It is used for printing small size dictionaries, word books, reference books and pocket books by letterpress and flat press. It is divided into three levels: A, B and C, and the quantitative is 25, 30, 35 and 40 g square meters. Dictionary paper has web paper with width of 787 and 880 mm; The flat sheet size is 787 × 1092 (mm) and 880 × 1230 (mm). The raw material of dictionary paper is mainly bleached chemical wood pulp, followed by bleached straw pulp. An appropriate amount of filler and glue should be added to the pulp, which should be copied on the long screen machine and super calendered after drying. Therefore, this kind of paper not only has higher surface smoothness, but also has higher whiteness than relief paper and offset book paper. Chinese manufacturers of dictionary paper mainly include Zhejiang Longyou and Shandong Huangtai paper mills. Before the 1980s, when letterpress books were popular, there was also a kind of thin letterpress paper, which was used as a substitute for dictionary paper for letterpress books. Its quantity and specification are similar to dictionary paper. It is mainly bleached chemical reed pulp. In order to increase whiteness, more fillers are added, but less sizing, so it is not suitable for lithography

6. Coated paper coated paper is commonly known as coated paper, and its official name should be printing coating paper. Before the 1940s, the quality of lithography at that time was still low. The reproduction of high-grade painting works of art such as classical oil painting mainly used this paper to print on the photographic screen color copperplate (relief plate). The name of copperplate paper has been used all the time. The quantity is 100, 120, 150, 180, 200, 250 grams square meters, and the flat sheet packaging specification is 787 × 1092 (mm), 880 × 1230 (mm). Coated paper is made of base paper processed by coating. The base paper is made of 100% bleached chemical wood pulp or mixed with some bleached straw pulp. The coating is mainly composed of white pigments such as barium sulfate, kaolin and titanium dioxide and adhesives such as casein and gelatin. In addition, auxiliary materials such as beeswax and glycerol are added, coated on the base paper by coater, dried and super calendered. Coated paper can be divided into single-sided and double-sided. The surface of coated paper is white, smooth and flat, with high smoothness and whiteness. It is suitable for printing high-grade prints such as color picture books, exquisite pictures, advertising trademarks, color illustrations and so on. Domestic manufacturers of coated paper mainly include Shanghai Huali coated paper factory, etc

7. Map paper is divided into special number and No. 1. The special quantity is 80, 100 and 120 g square meters, and the first quantity is 80, 90, 100, 120 and 150 g square meters. All map papers are flat sheets, with specifications of 787 × 1092 (mm), 850 × 1168 (mm), 920 × 1180 (mm) and 940 × 1180 (mm). Map paper is made of bleached chemical wood pulp and bleached cotton pulp, long fiber, re sizing, copied by long screen machine, and then processed by super calendering. Its processing and properties are similar to those of lithographic paper, but its surface properties and dimensional stability are higher than those of lithographic paper. Baoding paper mill is the main factory producing map paper in China

8. White paperboard white paperboard has a ration of 200, 220, 250, 300, 400 grams square meters, flat sheet packaging, and 787 specifications × 1092 (mm) and 880 × 1230 (mm), divided into three levels: A, B and C. White cardboard is made from bleached wood pulp, re sizing and adding white fillers such as barium sulfate. It is copied on the long screen machine and processed by calendering or embossing. The appearance of white cardboard is white and thick. It has the printability of high-grade paper and the firmness of thick cardboard. It is suitable for printing business cards, invitations, certificates, greeting cards and packaging and decoration prints

9. Book cover paper is divided into three levels: A, B and C. It has three colors: beige, sky blue and light gray, so it is also called color book cover paper. The ration is 80, 100 and 120 g /m2. The specification is flat paper 787 × 1092 (mm), 880 × 1230 (mm). Class a book cover paper is mainly made of bleached chemical wood pulp mixed with a certain amount of bleached chemical straw pulp, while class B and C book cover paper are mainly made of bleached chemical straw pulp mixed with a small amount of bleached chemical wood pulp, with appropriate filler and high sizing on the long screen machine. Book cover paper is mainly used for the cover and insert of books and periodicals, as well as the ring lining of hardcover books. High grade pattern book cover paper is made by coating the surface of base paper with color paint, polishing and pressing on the embossing machine. There are paper mills in Shandong and Tianjin

10. Braille printing paper braille printing paper is specially used for printing Braille Braille books, with a quantitative of 100 ~ 125g square meters. The factory is web paper with a width of 635mm. Braille paper is made from unbleached kraft wood pulp. It is yellowish brown and strong, similar to kraft paper. Produced by Heilongjiang Jiamusi paper mill for braille printing all over the country

11. Cast coated paper cast coated paper is cast coated paper. It is a processing paper made of different quantitative paper or cardboard as the base paper and cast coated. It is divided into three levels: A, B and C. There are 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 220, 250 and 280 grams of square meters. It is generally flat paper, with specifications of 787 × 1092 (mm), 850 × 1168 (mm) and 880 × 1230 (mm). The base paper and coating used in the processing of cast coated paper are similar to coated paper, but the processing methods are different. After the base paper is coated with paint, when the paint is not dry and solid, let the coated surface roll through a mirror like dryer. When the paint is heated and dried, it will roll into a film to become a mirror like cast coating surface. Cast coated paper has high gloss, whiteness and smoothness. It prints color pictures with clear dots and bright colors. It is mainly used for printing postcards, greeting cards, high-grade packaging boxes, book covers, etc. Hubei Xiangfan paper general factory, Shandong paper General Factory West Factory, Shandong Jining paper factory and Beijing processing paper factory produce cast coated paper

12. Writing paper writing paper is one of the most widely used varieties of cultural paper. There are 45, 50, 60, 70 and 80 grams of square meters. It is divided into four levels: A, B, C and D. the specification is flat paper, 787 × 1092 (mm), 880 × 1230 (mm). There are many kinds of raw materials for writing paper, including wood pulp and straw pulp, but the requirements for whiteness are high, with grade a not less than 85% and grade C not less than 75%. Due to the different pulp raw materials used by different regions and manufacturers, the quality and performance of the paper produced vary greatly. After long mesh or round mesh, calendering should be carried out to improve the smoothness of the paper. Considering the function of writing paper, the sizing degree is very high in the process of copying, so there will be no water bleeding when writing with ink. Most of the exercise books, diaries, stationery, forms, manuscript paper, account books and other cultural supplies used by students are printed on this paper

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